Data Encryption Standard (DES)
- The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its strength against attacks, D. Coppersmith, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 30, No. 3, May 1994.
This article explains how Lucifer was hardened against differential cryptanalysis to produce the Data Encryption Standard.
Abstract: "The Data Encryption Standard was developed by an team around 1974 and adopted as a national standard Since that time, many cryptanalysts have attempted to find shortcuts for breaking the system. This paper, we examine one such attempt, the method of differential cryptanalysis, published by Biham and Shamir. We show some of the safeguards against differential cryptanaiysis that were built into the system from the beginning, with the result that more than bytes of chosen plalntext are required for this attack to succeed."